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Problems and outlooks of optogenetic technologies in the 21st century

[Review]
Irina Ivanovna Fomochkina; Leya Evgenievna Sorokina; Vitalina Igorevna Petrenko; Alexander Sergeevich Kucherenko; Server Iskanderovich Halilov; Anatoly Vladimirovich Kubyshkin; Mikhail Vladimirovich Subbotkin; Alina Alekseevna Kulanova;

Optogenetics is an innovative scientific trend, had developed in the 21st century as the integration of genetic engineering and advanced laser technologies to study the functioning of the human organism, diagnostics, and therapy of socially significant diseases. This work represents modern information and outlooks of optogenetics achievements to solve a wide range of biomedical problems. The review contains a description of the main methods of delivery, incorporation, and control of the expression of photosensitive proteins on the cell membrane. There are described characteristics of the physical and technical side of the optogenetic experiment, are indicated the key advantages and disadvantages of various techniques. The
main difficulties of optogenetic technologies, examples of technical solutions for optostimulation and registration of cellular
activity synchronically are described.

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Keywords: optogenetics, opsins, ion channels, fiber optic systems, photostimulation


Founders:
Stavropol State Medical Academy
Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
Pyatigorsk State Pharmaceutical Academy