Medical news
of the North Caucasus
Scientific journal
Mass media registration certificate dated December 7, 2006.
Series ПИ #ФС 77-26521.
Federal service for surveillance over non-violation of the legislation in the sphere of mass communications and protection of cultural heritage.
ISSN 2073-8137

Site search

Correspondence address
310 Mira Street, Stavropol, Russia, 355017

+7 8652 352524; +7 8652 353229.

+7 8652 352524.


Features of inter-microbial relations in the infer tile women’s vagina microbiota

[Obstetrios and gynecology]
Anatoliy Godovalov; Maksim Gushchin; Tamara Karpunina;

At present, there is a change in the relationship between man and microorganisms, expressed by a change in the spectrum of pathogens and the clinical picture of diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the features of microecology of the lower genital tract under infertility. A microbiological study of the vagina samples of 345 subfertil women was carried out. The inadequacy of the traditional microbiological characteristics of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the vagina microorganisms was shown. For the microecological assessment of the state of the biotope, a complex of indicators has been proposed and tested, which makes it possible to assess the constancy of microflora, the nature of the relationship between individual representatives. It was shown a decrease in the amount of Lactobacillus spp. in the vagina microbiocenosis in half of the subfertil women. In such a situation, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms receive ample opportunities for manifesting their pathogenic properties. However, with a sufficient amount of Lactobacillus spp., the antagonistic nature of the relationship between obligate and transitional objects of normoflora is preserved. In addition, it can be assumed that random microorganisms additionally create conditions for the formation of pathological symbiosis. In general, the microecological approach to assessing the state of the microbiota seems appropriate, since it provides the necessary information on the character of symbionts in the microflora of the analyzed niche.


1. García-Velasco J. A., Menabrito M., Catalán I. B. What fertility specialists should know about the vaginal microbiome: a review. Reprod. Biomed. Online. 2017;35(1):103-112. https://doi:org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.04.005
2. Moran N. A., Sloan D. B. The hologenome concept: helpful or hollow? PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002311. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002311
3. Datcu R. Characterization of the vaginal microflora in health and disease. Dan. Med. J. 2014;61(4):B4830.
4. Il’ina T. S., Romanova Ju. M., Gincburg A. L. Biofilms as a way of existence of bacteria in the environment and the host organism: a phenomenon, genetic control and systems of regulation of their development. Genetika. – Russian Journal of Genetic. 2004;40(11):1445-1456. (In Russ.).
5. Kosterina V. V., Rjabinina A. P., Leonov V. V., Varnicyna V. V. Change in mean daily hemolytic and catalase activity of hospital strains of associative microbiota under the action of Candida albicans exometabolites in the experiment. Vestnik Jugorskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. – Yugra State University Bulletin. 2009;3(14):58-61. (In Russ.).
6. Osipovich O. A., Godovalov A. P. On the role of inflammatory diseases in the development of infertility in women. Medicinskij al’manah. – Medical Almanac. 2016;5(45):85- 87. (In Russ.).
7. Godovalov A. P., Karpunina N. S., Karpunina T. I. Microbiota of the intestine and vagina of women with secondary infertility and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Jeksperimental’naja i klinicheskaja gastrojenterologija. – Journal of Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology. 2016;6(130):109-113. (In Russ.).
8. Zaharova E. A., Azizov I. S. Microecological characteristics of the intestinal microbiocenosis often ill children. Zhurnal mikrobiologii. – Journal of Microbiology. 2012;2:63-68. (In Russ.).
9. Smith S. B., Ravel J. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology. J. Physiol. 2017;595(2):451- 463. https://doi:org/10.1113/JP271694
10. Vaneechoutte M. The human vaginal microbial community. Research in Microbiology. 2017;26:S0923- 2508(17)30133-X. https://doi:org/10.1016/j.resmic.2017.08.001
11. Mestrovic T., Profozic Z. Clinical and microbiological importance of Leptothrix vaginalis on Pap smear reports. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;44:68-69. https://doi:org/10.1002/dc.23385
12. Petrova M. I., Lievens E., Malik S., Imholz N., Lebeer S. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health. Front. Physiol. 2015;25(6):81. https://doi:org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00081
13. Kim J. Y., Sung J. H., Chang K. H., Choi S. J., Oh S. Y. [et al.]. Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 2017;30(5):556-561. https://doi:org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1177819
14. Stingley R. L., Liu H., Mullis L. B., Elkins C. A., Hart M. E. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions. J. Microbiol. Methods. 2014;106:57-66. https://doi:org/10.1016/j.mimet.2014.08.002
15. MacPhee R. A., Miller W. L., Gloor G. B., McCormick J. K., Hammond J. A. [et al.]. Influence of the vaginal microbiota on toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2013;79(6):1835-1842. https://doi:org/10.1128/AEM.02908-12
16. Babu G., Singaravelu B. G., Srikumar R., Reddy S. V., Kokan A. Comparative study on the vaginal flora and incidence of asymptomatic vaginosis among healthy women and in women with infertility problems of reproductive age. J. Clin. Diagn. Res. 2017;11(8):DC18-DC22. https://doi:org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/28296.10417
17. Ruíz F. O., Gerbaldo G., García M. J., Giordano W., Pascual L. [et al.]. Synergistic effect between two bacteriocinlike inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacilli Strains with inhibitory activity for Streptococcus agalactiae. Curr. Microbiol. 2012;64(4):349-356. https://doi:org/10.1007/s00284-011-0077-0
18. Sáez-López E., Cossa A., Benmessaoud R., Madrid L., Moraleda C. [et al.]. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158695. https://doi:org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158695
19. Bujnakova D., Kmet V. Aggregation of animal lactobacilli with O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J. Vet. Med. B. Infect. Dis. Vet. Public. Health. 2002;49(3):152- 154. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0450.2002.00526.x
20. Czekaj T., Ciszewski M., Szewczyk E. M. Staphylococcus haemolyticus – an emerging threat in the twilight of the antibiotics age. Microbiology. 2015;161(11):2061-2068. https://doi:org/10.1099/mic.0.000178
21. Barros E. M., Ceotto H., Bastos M. C. F., Dos Santos K. R. N., Giambiagi-Demarval M. Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an important hospital pathogen and carrier of methicillin resistance genes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2012;50:166-168. https://doi:org/10.1128/JCM.05563-11
22. Cavanagh J. P., Hjerde E., Holden M. T. G., Kahlke T., Klingenberg C. [et al.]. Whole-genome sequencing reveals clonal expansion of multiresistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus in European hospitals. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2014;69:2920-2927. https://doi:org/10.1093/jac/dku271
23. Tkachenko A. G., Akhova A. V., Shumkov M. S., Nesterova L. Y. Polyamines reduce oxidative stress in Escherichia coli cells exposed to bactericidal antibiotics. Research in Microbiology. 2012;163(2):83-91. https://doi:org/10.1016/j.resmic.2011.10.009

Keywords: microecological approach, microflora, vaginal biotope, infertility, conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, Jacquard coefficient

Stavropol State Medical Academy
Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
Pyatigorsk State Pharmaceutical Academy