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In the study was investigated the suitability of the mandibular ridge in osteoporotic sheep for comparative dental implant research, to establish histological protocols for this model, to study the effect of variations in healing of tooth extraction sockets and of an acute 12mm bone defects. The hypothesis tested was the post-extraction osteoporotic sheep mandible and the acute 12mm bone defect in osteoporotic sheep is a suitable model for comparative dental implant research. Seven young female sheep with an average body weight of 30 kg have been used in this proof of principle study. Six months prior to the studies start, animals had been neutered by ovariectomy to induce osteoporosis. In the first phase, extraction of the incisors was performed bilaterally in each osteoporotic sheep. Following tooth extraction, in accordance with the literature two standardized box-shaped defects (12 mm acute bone defects) were surgically created at the buccal aspect of the alveolar ridge in the buccal sextant in a split-mouth design. As the second phase after 12 weeks, block sections were obtained from the experimental sites. Descriptive histological analysis on non-decalcified and decalcified sections was carried out. Bone density (BMD) was measured using radiographic images and initial quantitative analysis was provided to study the bone architecture of our Osteoporotic Sheep Model. Significant microstructural evolutions were found on the bone compartment biopsies. The bone volume fraction (BV/ TV) decreased by approximately 25 % at six months post-ovariectomy. Histologic analysis of the periodontal/bone compartment sections stained with different stains revealed typical changes in the periodontal/bone compartments of the osteoporotic sheep. At 12 weeks, defect healing was mainly characterized by an ongoing bone formation and mineralization. Bone loss at investigated anatomical sites was in excess of 25 % which is sufficient to categorize these animals as osteoporotic supporting the stated hypothesis and suggests that the mechanism of bone loss could differ temporally as well as anatomically.
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Keywords: osteoporotic sheep model, bone densification, qualitative histology