Medical news
of the North Caucasus
Scientific journal
Mass media registration certificate dated December 7, 2006.
Series ПИ #ФС 77-26521.
Federal service for surveillance over non-violation of the legislation in the sphere of mass communications and protection of cultural heritage.
ISSN 2073-8137

Site search

Correspondence address
310 Mira Street, Stavropol, Russia, 355017

+7 8652 352524; +7 8652 353229.

+7 8652 352524.


Comorbidity of renal and cardiac pathology

Tatiana Zueva; Tatiana Zhdanov; Svetlana Urazlina;

Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The number of patients with CKD and cardiovascular disease continues to increase. The term cardiorenal syndrome is used to define various clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunctions occur simultaneously. In the pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome, a close relationship between the heart and kidneys, common traditional and non-traditional risk factors play a role. Modern biomarkers allow assessing the cardiovascular risk in patients with impaired renal function. The review gives an idea of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of cardiorenal syndrome.


1.Korzh A. N. Cardiorenal syndrome: clinical significance, diagnostic criteria and principles of tratment. Vostochnoyevropeysky zhurnal vnutrenney i semeinoy meditsiny. – Eastern-European journal of internal and family medicine. 2016;6:36-42. (In Russ.). https://doi:10.15407/internalmed 2016.02.036
2.Zuyeva T. V., Zhdanova T. V., Nazarov A. V. Some aspects of the cardiovascular system in patients with chronic renal disease. Uralsky meditsinsky zhurnal. – Ural medical journal. 2011;6(84):59-65. (In Russ.).
3. Kamyshnikova L. A., Yefremova O. A., Pivovar R. S. Features of cardiorenal relationships at patients with the chronic disease of kidney. The current state of the problem. Nauchnye vedomosti. Seriya Meditsina. Farmatsiya. – Scientific statements. Series Medicine. Pharmacy. 2017;5(254):13-21. (In Russ.).
4. Rodrigo E., Fernandez-Fresnedo G., Barreda P., Ferrer-Costa C., M de Francisco Á. L. [et al.]. Clinical-genetic approach to assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with CKD. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2017;10(5):672-678. https://doi:10.1093/ckj/sfx039
5. Rudenka T. E., Kutyrina I. M. Renocardial interactions: possibilities of therapeutic interventions. Effektivnaya farmakoterapiya. Urologiya i Nefrologiya. – Effective pharmacotherapy. Urology and Nephrology. 2012;Special issue:57-80. (In Russ.).
6. Gluba-Brzózka A., Michalska-Kasiczak M., Franczyk B., Nocuń M., Toth P. [et al.]. Markers of increased atherosclerotic risk in patients with chronic kidney disease: a preliminary study. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016;15:22. https://doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0191-x
7. Wanner C., Amann K., Shoji T. The heart and vascular system in dialysis. Lancet. 2016;388(10041):276-84. https://doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30508-6
8. Andriyevskaya T. G., Alekseyeva N. Yu. Chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension. Sibirsky meditsinsky zhurnal. – Siberian medical journal. 2010;4:24-26. (In Russ.).
10. Esayan A. M. Chronic renal disease: risk factors, early detection, principles of antihypertensive therapy. Meditsinsky sovet. – Medical advice. 2017;12:18-25. (In Russ.).
11. Moiseyev B. C., Mukhin N. A., Smirnov A. V. Cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease: cardio-nephroprotection strategies. National clinical guidelines. Rossysky kardiologichesky zhurnal. – Russian journal of cardiology. 2014;8(112):7-37. (In Russ.).
12. Melentyeva A. A., Barysheva O. Yu., Tikhova G. P. Survival rate impact factors in patients treated by hemodialysis for the chronic kidney disease. Uchenye zapiski petrozavodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. – Scientific notes of Petrozavodsk state University. 2015;6:60-66. (In Russ.).
13. Melnik A. A. Cardiorenal syndrome: diagnosis and treatment. Pochki. – Kidneys. 2017;6(1):2-12. (In Russ.). https://doi:10.15407/internalmed2016.02.036
14. Gao H., Liu S. Role of uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate in the progression of cardiovascular disease. Life Sci. 2017;15(185):23-29. https://doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2017.07.027
15. Tsibulkin N. A., Novozhilova A. A., Khakimova D. M. Cardiorenal syndrome: pathogenesis, clinical picture. Kazansky meditsinsky zhurnal. – Kazan medical journal. 2016;97(2):274-277. (In Russ.).
16. Collins A. J., Vassalotti J. A., Wang C., Li S., Gilbertson D. T. [et al.]. Who should be targeted for CKD screening? Impact of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2009;53(3):71-77. https://doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.07.057
17. Efremova Ye. V., Shutov A. M. Clinical characteristics, quality of life and prognosis of patients with chronic cardiorenal syndrome. Nefrologiya. – Nephrology. 2015;19(2):63-67. (In Russ.).
18. Ronco C., McCullough P., Anker S. D., Anand I., Aspromonte N. [et al.]. Cardio-renal syndromes: report from the consensus conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative. European Heart Journal. 2010;31:703-711.
19. Kobalava Zh. D., Villevalde S. V., Yefremovtseva M. A., Moiseyev V. S. Cardiorenal interrelation: modern view. Kardiovaskulyarnaya terapiya i profilaktika. – Cardiovascular therapy and prevention. 2010;9(4):4-11. (In Russ.).
20. Anand I. S. Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Cardiologist’s Perspective of Pathophysiology. Сlinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2013;8(10):1800-1807.
21. Vizir V. A., Berezin A. E. Cardiorenal syndrome. Arterialnaya gipertenziya. – Hypertension. 2011;2(16):100-109. (In Russ.).
22. Milovanova L. Yu., Milovanov Yu. S., Kozlovskaya L. V., Mukhin N. A. New markers of cardio-renal lincks in chronic kidney disease. Terapevtichesky arkhiv. – Therapeutic archive. 2013;6:17-24. (In Russ.).
23. Daveport A., Anker S. D., Mebazaa A., Palazzuoli A., Vescovo G. [et al.]. ADQI 7: the clinical management of cardio-renal syndromes: workgroup statements from the 7 th ADQI consensus conference. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:2077-2089.
24. Ronco C., Ronco F., McCullough P.A. A Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine. Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2017;18(3):93-99.
25. Soni S., Fahuan Y., Ronco C., Cruz D. N. Cardiorenal syndrome: biomarkers linking kidney damage with heart failure. Biomarkers in Medicine. 2009;3(5):549-560.
26. Bova A. A. Cardiorenal syndrome: the current state of the problem. Meditsinskiye novosti. – Medical news. 2013;6:27-33. (In Russ.).
27. Vesnina Zh. V., Arsenyeva Yu. A. Cardiorenal syndrome: currents views of relationships between renal and cardiovascular diseases. Klinicheskaya meditsina. – Clinical medicine. 2012;7:8-13. (In Russ.).
28. Rofe M. T., Goryainov P., Barashi R., Ben-Shoshan J., Keren G., Entin-Meer M. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Cell Death in Chronic Kidney Disease. Israel Medical Association Journal. 2015;17(12):744-749.
29. Ter Maaten J. M., Damman K., Verhaar Damman M. C., Verhaar K. Connecting heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and renal dysfunction: the role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. European Journal of Heart Failure. 2016;18(6):588-598. https://doi:10.1002/ejhf.497
30. Zhang J., Bottiglieri T., McCullough P. А. The Central Role of Endothelial Dysfunction in Cardiorenal Syndrome. Cardiorenal Medicine. 2017; 7(2):104-117.
31. Ronco C., Ronco F., McCullough P. A. Call to Action to Develop Integrated Curricula in Cardiorenal Medicine. Reviews in cardiovascular medicine. 2017;18(3):93-99.
32. Shevchenko Yu. L., Stoyko Yu. M., Zamyatin M. N. Causes occurrence and features of course of acute pancreatitis in patients after cardiac surgeries under cardiopulmonary bypass. Annaly khirurgii. – The annals of surgery. 2012;3:26-30. (In Russ.).
33. Melnikova Yu. S., Makarova T. P. Endothelial dysfunction as the key link of chronic diseases pathogenesis. Kazansky meditsinsky zhurnal. – Kazan medical journal. 2015;9(4):659-665. (In Russ.).
34. Aspromonte N., Gulizia M. M., Clerico A., Di Tano G., Emdin M. [et al.]. ANMCO/ELAS/SIBioC Consensus Document: biomarkers in heart failure. European Heart Journal. 2017;19(Suppl D):102-112.
35. Ronco C., Cicoira M., McCullough P. A. Cardiorenal syndrome type 1: pathophysiological crosstalk leading to combined heart and kidney dysfunction in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2012;60(12):1031-1042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.01.077
36. McCullough P. A., Kellum J. A., Haase M., Müller C., Damman K. [et al.]. Pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndromes: executive summary from the eleventh consensus conference of the acute dialysis quality initiative (adqi). Contributions to Nephrology. 2013;182:82-98.
37. Rudenko T. E., Kutyrina I. M., Shvetsov M. Yu. Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiorenal syndrome. Lechashchy vrach. – Doctor. 2012;1:71. (In Russ.).
38. Clementi A., Virzì G. M., Brocca A., Ronco C. The Role of Endotoxin in the Setting of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5. Cardiorenal Med. 2017;7:276-283.
39. Salnikov A. S., Sorokina N. N., Rukavishnikov M. Yu., Ofitserov V. I. The protein that binds fatty acids is a serological marker of myocardial lesions. Sibirsky nauchny meditsinsky zhurnal. – The Siberian scientific medical journal. 2012;32(1):86-91. (In Russ.).
40. Tukesheva B. Sh. Analysis of diagnostic meaningfulness of criteria of cardiorenal syndrome for patients ischemic heart disease IHD. Vestnik Kazakhskogo natsionalnogo meditsinskogo universiteta. – Bulletin of Kazakh National medical University. 2013;1:67-69. (In Russ.).
41. Dzyak G. V. Cardiorenal syndrome: pathophysiology, verification, treatment. Pochki. – Kidneys. 2012;1:9-18. (In Russ.).
42. Fergyuson M. A., Vaykar S. S. The established and reintroduced markers of kidney functions. Klinicheskaya laboratornaya diagnostika. – Clinical laboratory diagnostics. 2013;11:3- 11. (In Russ.).
43. Shinichiro N., Shinichiro N., Yoshitaka I., Takaharuahata Y., Shunichi M. Renocardiovascular Biomarkers: from the Perspective of Managing Chronic. Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Disease. – Front Cardiovasc. Med. 2017;4:10.
44. Aliyeva A. M. Natriuretic peptides: use in modern cardiology. Atmosfera. Novosti kardiologii. – Atmosphere. News of cardiology. 2017;1:26- 31. (In Russ.).
45. Liskova Yu. V., Stolbova M. V., Stadnikov M. V. Neuroendocrine markers of chronic heart failure: significance for diagnosis and prognosis. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. – Modern problems of science and education. 2015;5:319. (In Russ.).
46. Brouwers F. P., de Boer R. A., van der Harst P., Voors A. A., Gansevoort R. T. [et al.]. Incidence and epidemiology of new onset heart failure with preserved vs. reduced ejection fraction in a community based cohort: 11year follow up of PREVEND. European Heart Journal. 2013;34:1424-1431.
47. Alekseyev A. V., Gilmanov A. Zh., Gatiyatullina R. S., Rakipov I. G. Recent biomarkers of acute renal injury. Prakticheskaya meditsina. – Practical medicine. 2014;3(79):22-27. (In Russ.).
48. Urazayeva L. I., Maksudova A. N. Biomarkers of early renal injury: review of literature. Prakticheskaya meditsina. – The practice of medicine. 2014;1(80):125-130. (In Russ.).
49. Iskakova A. S. Cystatin C is marker of renal filtration function impairment in cardiorenal syndrome. Vestnik Kazakhskogo natsionalnogo meditsinskogo universiteta. – Bulletin of Kazakh National medical University. 2013;4(1):318-320. (In Russ.).
50. Kobalava Zh. D., Villevalde S. V., Yefremovtseva M. A., Moiseyev V. S. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: current views and prospect. Terapevtichesky arkhiv. – Therapeutic archive. 2014;6:88-93. (In Russ.).

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, cardiorenal syndrome, biomarkers

Stavropol State Medical Academy
Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
Pyatigorsk State Pharmaceutical Academy