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The role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and its metabolic profile (Part 1)

[Review]
Natalia Volkova; Liliya Ganenko; Sergey Golovin; Elena Beresniak;

The review article describes the stages of studying the microbiota of the human body. Modern experimental and clinical data on the formation of the intestinal microbiota in man, its composition, role in metabolic processes and the relationship with the development of obesity are summarized. Molecular genetic studies show that the development of obesity correlates with a qualitative change in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Experimental data obtained on gnotobiont animals revealed some mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon, in particular, the participation of a microbiota in energy metabolism, and the activation of hormones responsible for lipogenesis and fat deposition in adipocytes, hormonal regulation. Our understanding of the chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, observed with obesity, is widened due to the violation of the hemato-intestinal barrier and the interaction of bacterial effectors with immunocompetent cells.

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Keywords: microbiota, microbiom, fatty acid metabolism, obesity


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