Medical news
of the North Caucasus
Scientific journal
Mass media registration certificate dated December 7, 2006.
Series ПИ #ФС 77-26521.
Federal service for surveillance over non-violation of the legislation in the sphere of mass communications and protection of cultural heritage.
ISSN 2073-8137

Site search

Correspondence address
310 Mira Street, Stavropol, Russia, 355017

+7 8652 352524; +7 8652 353229.

+7 8652 352524.


Characteristics of reparative regeneration and immunohistochemical profile of cartilaginous articular tissue after experimental damage and in degenerative diseases of articular cartilage

Georgy Airapetov; Sergey Zalimovich Chukov; Alim Zhagafarovich Khurtuev;

The review presents the results of modern studies assessing the qualitative characteristics of reparative regeneration of articular cartilage, with the study of the immunohistochemical profile of cartilage tissue during its damage, both posttraumatic and due to degenerative diseases


1. Fischer J., Dickhut A., Rickert M., Richter W. Human Articular Chondrocytes Secrete Parathyroid Hormone–Related Protein and Inhibit Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture During Chondrogenesis. Arthritis&Rheumology. 2010;62(9):2696-706. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.27565
2. Saeed H., Ahsan M., Saleem Z., Iqted M., Islam M. [et al.]. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as skeletal therapeutics–an update. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2016;23:41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12929-016-0254-3
3. Bouderlique T., Henault E., Lebouvier A., Frescaline G., Bierling P. [et al.]. Pleiotrophin Commits Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells towards Hypertrophy during Chondrogenesis. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88287. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088287
4. Fisher J. N., Peretti G. M., Scotti C. Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration: From Cell-Based Therapies to Decellularised Engineered Extracellular Matrices. Stem Cells International. 2016;2016:9352598. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9352598
5. Anraku Y., Mizuta H., Sei A., Kudo S., Nakamura E. [et al.]. The chondrogenic repair response of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in rat full-thickness articular cartilage defects. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2008;16(8):961-964. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2007.12.009
6. Karimi T., Barati D., Karaman O., Moeinzadeh S., Jabbari E. Developmentally Inspired Combined Mechanical and Biochemical Signaling Approach on Zonal Lineage Commitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Articular Cartilage Regeneration. Integrative Biology (Camb). 2015;7(1):112-27. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ib00197d
7. Li G., Zheng B., Meszaros L., Vella J., Usas A. Identification and characterization of chondrogenic progenitor cells in the fascia of postnatal skeletal muscle. Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 2011;3(6):369-77. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjr014
8.Gao X., Usas A., Lu A., Tang Y., Wang B. [et al.]. BMP2 Is Superior to BMP4 for Promoting Human Muscle-Derived Stem Cell-Mediated Bone Regeneration in a Critical-Sized Calvarial Defect Model. Cell Transplantation. 2013;22(12):2393-408. https://doi.org/10.3727/096368912X658854
9. Joos H., Wildner A., Hogrefe C., Reichel H., Brenner R. Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit migration activity of chondrogenic progenitor cells from non-fibrillated osteoarthritic cartilage. Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2013;15(5):R119. https://doi.org/10.1186/ar4299
10. Kristjánsson B., Honsawek S. Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for Osteoarthritis. Stem Cells International. 2014;2014:194318. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/194318
11. Rui Y. F., DU L., Wang Y., Wang Y., Lui P. P. [et al.]. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 promotes transforming growth factor β3-induced chondrogenesis of human osteoarthritic
synovium-derived stem cells. Chinese Medical Journal. 2010;123(21):3040-3048.
12. Murphy M., Huey D., Hu J., Athanasiou K. TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation induces chondrogenesis in expanded human articular chondrocytes and marrowderived stromal cells. Stem Cells. 2015;33(3):762-73. https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.1890
13. Deng Z., Jin J., Zhao J., Xu H. Cartilage Defect Treatments: With or without Cells? Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Chondrocytes? Traditional or Matrix-Assisted? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. Stem Cells International. 2016;2016:9201492. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9201492
14. Bernsteiny P., Stichtz C., Jacobiy A., Liebersy C., Mantheyx S. [et al.]. Expression pattern differences between osteoarthritic chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells during chondrogenic differentiation. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2010;18(12):1596-1607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2010.09.007
15. Xu L., Wu Y., Xiong Z., Zhou Y., Ye Z. [et al.]. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reshape and Provoke Proliferation of Articular Chondrocytes by Paracrine Secretion. Scientific Reports.2016;6:32705. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32705
16. Li S., Sengers B., Oreffo R., Tare R. Chondrogenic potential of human articular chondrocytes and skeletal stem cells: A comparative study. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 2015;29(6):824-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328214548604
17. Hopper N., Wardale J., Brooks R., Power J., Rushton N. [et al.]. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Cartilage Repair in vivoOsteochondral Defect Model.PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0133937. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133937
18. Van Osch G. J., Brittberg M., Dennis J. E., Bastiaansen-Jenniskens Y. M., Erben R. G. [et al.]. Cartilage repair: past and future – lessons for regenerative medicine. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2009;13(5):792-810. https://doi.org/10.11/j.1582-4934.2009.00789.x
19. Zinglery C., Carl H., Swoboda B., Krinner S., Hennig F. [et al.]. Limited evidence of chondrocyte outgrowth from adult human articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage.2016;24(1):124-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2015.07.014
20. Pak J., Lee J. H., Pak N. J., Park K .S., Jeon J. H. [et al.]. Clinical Protocol of Producing Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction for Potential Cartilage Regeneration. Journal of Visualized Experiments.2018;(139). https://doi.org/10.3791/58363
21. Shen W., Chen W., Zhu T., Chen L., Hang W. [et al.]. Intra-Articular Injection of Human Meniscus Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Meniscus Regeneration and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Through Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated Homing. Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 2014;3(3):387-94. https://doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2012-0170
22. Ding Z., Huang H. Mesenchymal stem cells in rabbit meniscus and bone marrow exhibit a similar feature but a heterogeneous multi-differentiation potential: superiority of meniscus as a cell source for meniscus repair. BMC Musculoskelet Disorders. 2015;16:65. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-015-0511-8
23. Agar G., Blumenstein S., Bar-Ziv Y., Kardosh R., Schrift- Tzadok M. [et al.]. The Chondrogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Cells and Chondrocytes from Osteoarthritic Subjects: A Comparative Analysis. Cartilage. 2011;2(1):40-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/1947603510380899
24. Ogata Y., Mabuchi Y., Yoshida M., Suto E., Suzuki N. [etal.]. Purified Human Synovium Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Good Resource for Cartilage Regeneration. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0129096. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129096
25. Wehling N., Palmer G. D., Pilapil C., Liu F., Wells J. W. [et al.]. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit chondrogenesis by human mesenchymal stem cells through NF-kappaB-dependent pathways. Arthritis&Rheumatology. 2009;60(3):801-12.https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24352
26. Zohar R., Sodek J., Christopher A. G., McCulloch C. A. Characterization of Stromal Progenitor Cells Enriched by Flow Cytometry. Blood. 1997;90(9):3471-81.
27. Augello A., Kurth T., Bari C. Mesenchymal stem cells: a perspective from in vitrocultures to in vivomigration and niches. European Cells and Materials. 2010;20:121-133.
28. Hamid A., Idrus R., Saim A., Sathappan S., Chua K. Characterization of human adipose-derived stem cells and expression of chondrogenic genes during induction of cartilage differentiation. Clinics. 2012;67(2):99-106.
29. Pretzel D., Linss S., Rochler S., Endres M., Kaps C. [et al.]. Relative percentage and zonal distribution of mesenchymal progenitor cells in human osteoarthritic and normal cartilage. Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2011;13(2):R64. https://doi.org/10.1186/ar3320
30. Jackson W., Lozito T., Djouad F., Kuhn N., Nesti L. [et al.]. Differentiation and regeneration potential of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from traumatized muscle tissue. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 2011;15(11):2377-88. https://doi.org/10.11/j.1582-4934.2010.01225.x
31. Xu J., Wang W., Kapila Y., Lotz J., Kapila S. Multiple Differentiation Capacity of STRO-1+ /CD146 + PDL Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells and Development. 2009;18(3):487-96. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2008.0113
32. Bornes T., Adesida A., Jomha N. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage defects: a comprehensive review. Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2014;16(5):432.
33. Chu C. The Challenge and the Promise of Bone Marrow Cells for Human. Cartilage Repair Cartilage. 2015;6(2 Suppl):36S-45S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1947603515574839
34. Filardo G., Perdisa F., Roffi A., Marcacci M., Kon E. Stem cells in articular cartilage regeneration. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2016;11:42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-016-0378-x
35. Zhong J., Guo B., Xie J., Deng S., Fu N. [et al.]. Crosstalk between adipose-derived stem cells and chondrocytes: when growth factors matter. Bone Research. 2016;4:15036. https://doi.org/10.1038/boneres.2015.36
36. Akkiraju H., Nohe A. Role of Chondrocytes in Cartilage Formation, Progression of Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Regeneration. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2015;3(4):177-192. https://doi.org/10.3390/jdb3040177
37. Bernhard J., Vunjak-Novakovic G. Should we use cells, biomaterials, or tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration? Stem Cell Research & Therapy. 2016;7:56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-016-0314-3
38. Caldwell K., Wang J. Cell-Based Articular Cartilage Repair: The Link between Development and Regeneration. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23(3):351-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.11.004
39. Richardson S., Kalamegam G., Pushparaj P., Matta C., Memic A. [et al.]. Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine: Focus on articular cartilage and intervertebral disc regeneration. Methods. 2016;99:69-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.09.015

Keywords: regeneration, cartilage, stem cells, progenitor cells, osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, immunohistochemistry

Stavropol State Medical Academy
Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
Pyatigorsk State Pharmaceutical Academy