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The article considers the main facts and events related to the development of the system of rendering medical care to the population and the features of health development in the Stavropol region in the XIX century. The research materials are presented by archival and literary sources. The analysis and synthesis of the information obtained using historical-systemic and historical-typological methods of research made it possible to establish a number of features of the organization of health care in the Stavropol region in the XIX century: close contact of the medical board with the military medical service in the first half of the century; management of medical work at the resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters; the hybrid structure of the health care system in the second half of the century, simultaneously maintaining the elements of the old system and having already signs of zemsky medicine; adaptation of the system of medical care to the conditions of a complex epidemic situation. The obtained results allow to draw a conclusion: under specific conditions the measures undertaken by the tsarist government and local authorities were quite adequate to the level of development of medicine in the country and the level of development of the region itself.
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Keywords: the Caucasian medical justice, Stavropol province medical inspector