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In recent years, many studies have documented an increased incidence of urinary system pathology in children, especially congenital anomalies of the urinary system with secondary pyelonephritis (SP). We carried out immunogenetic typing in 200 children aged 5–15 years with SP (100 children with latent SP and 100 children with recurrent SP). The distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles at the A, B, C, DR, DQ loci, as well as their phenotypic and haplotype combinations, was determined. We found that the latent course of SP in children was associated with interlocus combinations of the class 1 antigens HLA-A2/B17 and HLA-A3/B13. Resistance to latent SP was associated with the alleles HLA-DRB1*07, HLA-DRB1*15 (2), and HLA-DQB1*0302, the phenotypic combinations of antigens HLA-A1/A9 and HLA-A9/A11, and the haplotype combinations HLA-A3/B7, HLA A11/B35, and HLA-A19/B27. The recurrent course of SP in children was associated with the haplotype combination HLA-A11/B27. Resistance to recurrent SP was associated with the alleles HLA-DRB1*07, HLA DRB1*09, and HLA-DRB1*15 (2), the intralocus antigenic combination HLA-A9/A11, and the interlocus combinations HLA-A2/B12, HLA-A3/ B7, and HLA-A11/B35. In conclusions, HLA typing in children with various forms of SP enables the identification of factors predisposing to the development of this disease. These data may help clinicians understand the prognosis and disease course of various forms of SP.
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Keywords: secondary pyelonephritis, immunogenetics, hLA, children