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For the purpose of estimation of the genetic variety, a retrospective analysis of canSNP of 52 anthrax strains, isolated in the North Caucasus and in its adjacent territories over a period of 68 years from various materials during anthrax outbreaks is carried out. A considerable variability of SNP-loci has been shown. The most widespread and scarce SNP-genotypes and their quantitative and temporal distribution in the republics of the North Caucasus and in its adjacent territories have been revealed. A relation between the belonging of strains to the rare SNP-genotype B.Br001/002 which shows peculiarities in phenotypic properties of these cultures, and the role of populations of Bacillus anthracis strains of mixed pheno- and genotypes in the maintenance of pathogenicity potential under various conditions and in the reliability of their genetic marking during epidemiological investigation of anthrax outbreaks are being considered.
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Keywords: B. anthracis strains, SNP-genotype, phenotypic properties, heterogeneity of strain population, pidemiological investigation