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The role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity and its metabolic profile (Part II)

[Review]
Natalia Volkova; Liliya Ganenko; Sergey Golovin;

The number of patients with obesity and cardiometabolic disorders associated with it, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, is constantly increasing. Research findings suggest that obese patients are a very diverse group, since the presence of obesity-related metabolic disorders varies widely. A number of obese patients have no metabolic abnormalities at all; such an obesity phenotype is currently known as metabolic neutral obesity (MNO). The increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders cannot be associated solely with changes in the human genome, eating habits or a decrease in physical activity. In addition to the generally accepted reasons, one of the factors affecting the homeostasis of the energy of a microorganism through several proposed mechanisms is the intestinal microbiota. There are quantitative and qualitative differences in the intestinal microbiota in animals and people with obesity compared with thin ones. A review of current literature summarizes the experimental and clinical data on the role of the intestinal microbiota and its changes in metabolic disorders, the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota interacts with the energy metabolism of the macroorganism, and also characterizes the potential role of prebiotics and probiotics in the development of not only obesity, but also its metabolic profile.

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Keywords: intestinal microbiota, obesity, metabolically neutral obesity, short-chain fatty acids, prebiotic, probiotics


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Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
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