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Epidemic activity of modern anthropourgic plague foci and factors determining this activity (by the example of Vietnam)

[Review]
Alexander Sludsky; Aleksandr Kuznetsov; Aleksandr Matrosov; Andrey Boiko; Evgeny Kouklev; Mikhail Tarasov;

In XX–XXI centuries, the relative ratio of plague prevalence around the world varied by countries and continents. In the first half of the XX century large-scale epidemics spread across India, China, Africa and South-East Asia countries, where more than 1 million people were infected overall. In the second half of the XX century plague morbidity rates in the majority of the countries around the world became considerably reduced. In the territory of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, during the 3rd plague pandemic, anthropourgic plague foci were formed due to plague agent importation from China by synanthropic rats. For more than one hundred years, up to 2002, people were infected with plague in Vietnam. Morbidity rates varied from single cases up to major outbreaks. The peak of the incidence was registered during American military campaign against Vietnam (1965–1972, up to several thousand patients per year). Following the improvement of sanitary-hygienic living conditions and preventive measures (non-specific and specific plague prophylaxis), cases of human infection with plague have not been registered over the past 16 years. Nevertheless, the conditions necessary for activation and formation of anthropourgic plague foci remain. Taking into consideration high epidemic potential of these territories strengthening of epidemiological surveillance over plague across the whole territory of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is required.

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Keywords: plague, epidemic, morbidity rates, rodents, fleas


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Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneotherapeutics
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